Second Victims in German-speaking Countries (SeViD)

SeViD is a series of scientific studies that are the first of their kind to investigate the second victim phenomenon (SVP) in German-speaking countries. To date, twelve SeViD studies are planned in Germany within various medical professional groups, four of which have already been published in Q1 and Q2 journals (as of November 2023).

The Second Victim Phenomenon after the evidence- and consensus-badsed  definition of the European ERNST-consortium refers to:

“Any health care worker, directly or indirectly involved in an unanticipated adverse patient event, unintentional healthcare error, or patient injury and who becomes victimized in the sense that they are also negatively impacted.”

As there were no systematic studies on the prevalence, symptom burden and preferred support options for this phenomenon in Germany, Prof Dr Reinhard Strametz launched the SeViD project in 2018. To this end, the validated SeViD questionnaire was developed, which was supplemented with COVID-19 and personality-related questions (BFI-10). The first professional group to participate were internal medicine residents (SeViD-I) before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the second study (SeViD-II), nursing staff were surveyed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The third study focussed on emergency physicians who were surveyed at the end of 2022.

The results showed that although SVP is widespread, it is not yet sufficiently well known. The SeViD studies therefore serve as a data basis for further research projects and can be used to develop support programmes.

The SeViD questionnaire has now arrived in neighbouring German-speaking Austria: The first SeViD study (SeViD-A1) among Austrian paediatricians will be conducted there in spring 2023.

  • Potura E, Klemm V, Roesner H,  Sitter B, Huscsava H, Trifunovic-Koenig M, Voitl P, Strametz R (2023) Second Victims among Austrian Pediatricians (SeViD-A1 Study). Healthcare 2023, 11, 2501.
  • Marung, H.; Strametz, R.; Roesner, H.; Reifferscheid, F.; Petzina, R.; Klemm, V.; Trifunovic-Koenig, M.; Bushuven, S. (2023): Second Victims among German Emergency Medical Services Physicians (SeViD-III-Study). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 20, 4267.
  • Bushuven S, Trifunovic-Koenig M, Bentele M, Bentele S, Strametz R, Klemm V, Raspe M. (2022): Self-Assessment and Learning Motivation in the Second Victim Phenomenon. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 19, 16016.
  • Strametz R, Fendel JC, Koch P, Roesner H, Zilezinski M, Bushuven S, Raspe M (2021): Prevalence of Second Victims, Risk Factors, and Support Strategies among German Nurses (SeViD-II Survey). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 18(20):10594.
  • Strametz R, Siebold B, Heistermann P, Haller S, Bushuven S (2021): Validation of the German Version of the Second Victim Experience and Support Tool—Revised. J Patient Saf. 18(3):182-192
  • Strametz R, Koch P, Vogelgesang A, Burbridge A, Rösner H, Abloescher M, Huf W, Ettl B, Raspe M (2021): Prevalence of second victims, risk factors and support strategies among young German physicians in internal medicine (SeViD-I survey). J Occup Med Toxicol. 16(1):11.
  • Strametz R, Roesner, H, Abloescher M, Huf W, Ettl B, Raspe M (2020): [Development and validation of a questionnaire to assess incidence and reactions of second victims in German speaking countries (SeViD)] Zbl Arbeitsmed. 71:19-23

Cooperating Partners

  • Bundesvereinigung der Arbeitsgemeinschaften der Notärzte Deutschlands (BAND)
  • Charité-Universitätsmedizin, Berlin
  • Hegau-Jugendwerk Gailingen
  • Karl-Landsteiner-Institut, Wien, Österreich
  • Klinik Hietzing, Wien, Österreich
  • LMU München
  • Martin-Luther-Universität, Halle (Saale)
  • MSH Medical School Hamburg
  • Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein
  • Universitätsmedizin Freiburg
  • Universitätsmedizin Göttingen
  • Universitätsmedizin Hamburg-Eppendorf
  • Universitätsmedizin Warwickshire, England
  • Berliner Institut für Gesundheitsforschung
  • Second Victim Association, Austria